15th Century Portuguese Armour I – Sallet and Bevor

Dada a extensão deste artigo, achei por bem publicar as versões inglesa e portuguesa em separado. Para a versão portuguesa, cliquem aqui.

If we had to choose the most iconic helmet of the 15th century, we would almost certainly pickthe sallet. In Portugal, just as in Europe beyond the Pyrenees, the sallet spread from its birthplace in Italy and quickly replaced the hitherto preferred helmet of the Portuguese army – the bascinet. What are the characteristics of the Portuguese sallet of the 15th century, and what sets it apart from other European models?

Sallets: A Brief Introduction

Detail of a capital at the Doge’s Palace in Venice (ca. 1340-1360).

This topic has been covered masterfully and at length by the ever-amazing Ian LaSpina  on his channel Knyght Errant [1], in a series of videos which I can’t help but recommend. For those of you who like a new approach, I present this version of mine.

Although the word celata only turns up on record for the first time in 1407 [2], it is very likely (to say the least) that the piece to which celata is referring to precedes its designation by a few decades. This assumption is based on the existence of such artifacts as the capitals of the gothic arches of the Doge’s Palace in Venice (a detail of which is reproduced to the right) [3] – or the altar at Pistóia’s Cathedral, in Italy (a detail of which is reproduced below). The latter is particularly interesting for us, because it depicts common helmets of the late 14th century – a kettle hat, for example, and bascinets – side by side with some curious helmets on the two warriors in the foreground.

Altar Pistoia 1.png
1 – Possible proto-sallets; 2 – Bascinets; 3 – Kettle-hat. Detail of the Altar of St. James in the Cathedral of Pistoia, by Leonardo di Ser Giovanni and Francesco Niccolai (1361-1371).

What is different in this new type of helmet? Compared to the typical bascinet, the skull of these helmets is much more fitted, without the bascinet’s usual peak at the back of the head. Because they are designed to be worn without an aventail or pisane [4], the sides of the helmet move forward to cover a larger area of the cheeks and jaw, and the neck curves outwards in a small protruding edge to deflect blows . They could, as LaSpina points out, incorporate a pronounced widow’s beak on the forehead (something we’ll find in later models as well, like the Met’s 04.3.239 Spanish sallet). From this prototypical model, created in Italy, two subtypes were developed: the barbuta, which we won’t concern ourselves with here – since it is an almost exclusively Italian helmet , and certainly not Portuguese [5] – and the sallet itself.

Detail of the Saint George Altarpiece in Xérica (Valencia), a work of the circle of Marçal de Sax (ca. 1420). See the warrior on the left, with the green surcoat, or the one in the centre of the picture.

The sallet spread across Europe: it reached Franced first, around 1419 [6]; then the Holy Roman Empire, around 1425; England, around 1430 [8]. In Spain there are depictions of this type of early sallet from  the 1420s, as we can see in the image on the left.

As it spread, it also changed and evolved over time: at the end of the 14th century sallets had already incorporated visors [9], as with bascinets before them, but the skull was still drawn deep,  reaching over the neck, so the visor sits halfway down the face of the helmet – hence the bevor, to protect the bottom half of the face and the chin. From the middle of the century onwards the edge of the helmet rises to meet the bottom edge of the visor, forming a continuous edge at the level of the jaw and thus crystallizing what we could call the sallet’s standard shape – although visorless sallets continued to be used throughout this period, and afterwards as well. These new sallets existed alongside the earlier “deep” sallets for a few years, but the new style quickly supplanted the old one.

Two visored sallets and an open face sallet. Illustration from the French manuscript Guyron le Courtois, BNF Français 356, 189r (ca. 1440).

Regional Variations

Estilo Italiano
Italian export sallet (ca. 1460), Royal Armouries, II.168.

The sallet’s dispersal and adoption by different cultures naturally led to local and regional adaptions and preferences in style, through a given set of key characteristics present – either fully or partially – in pieces made in, or made for, those specific regions. These are some of the most common styles of sallet:

Italian/Milanese SalletsThe Italian style of sallet, called “Milanese” because of nothern Italy’s great manufacturing centres, features a rounded skull with or without a pronounced medial ridge, and a short tail. Italian export sallets usually featured full visors, although open face sallets were preferred in Italy, possibly due to reasons of cost (for the common soldiery) or visibility (for any warriors using long range weapons, for example).

German sallet (ca. 1480-1490), Royal Armouries, IV.427

German/ Gothic Sallets – This style, developed around 1450/1460 [10], is less curvilinear and rounded than Italian styles. These sallets were equipped with either full-visors or half-visors, quite angular in shape, or sometimes a closed skull that reached down to the chin, with slits cut into the skull for vision. Its most distinguishing feature, however, is the tail: long, when compared to other styles, drawn out over the nape of the neck. Though at first these long tails were drawn out from the helmet itself, more flexible tails made up of one or more articulated lames [11] were adopted later on  – the so-called “lobster tailed sallets”.

Anglo-Burgundian sallet (ca. 1460), Herbert Art Gallery & Museum, AR.1962.54.

Anglo-Burgundian/Franco-Burgundian Sallets – The Anglo-Burgundian or Franco-Burgundian sallet is a somewhat intermediate style between the Italian and German styles. It has the short tail and the round silhouette of Milanese sallets, which it combines with a pointy skull and a visor profile slimmer than that of typical Italian pieces. These are some of the rarest sallets today. The one reproduced here on the left, from Coventry, is regarded as the only copy of its kind in the United Kingdom.

It is possible to find Italian sallets made in accordance with German styles, and vice-versa; and the preferences of each individual buyer sometimes contradicted the general trends in their country or region. Other regional variations do exist – Scandinavian sallets, for example, with their globose, almost onion-shaped skulls – but further research is yet needed for a all-encompassing typology to be developed.

Castilian bevor (?)  (ca. 1490), Art Institute of Chicago, 1982.2527

Sallets and Bevors

I have mentioned the bevor more than a few times thus far. The bevor (babeira or barbote in Portuguese) is a piece of equipment designed to protect the chin and the throat. It is closed or buckled at the back of the neck and it can be made up of one or more hinged lames, with or without padding. It could be worn with a maille standard, to ensure protection for the whole neck. In Portugal, along with Castile, the central lame of the breast could extend over the sternum and the top lame, covering the mouth, is often articulated – in the Castilian case, these top lames sometimes included visor slits, if they went up as far as the eyes [12].

The Sallet in Portugal

Going by the bascinet’s predominance in the 1455 Letter of Discharge of Lisbon’s Royal Arsenal [13], the sallet doesn’t seem to have thrived in Portugal before the second half of the fifteenth century. The official chronicles, by Fernão Lopes and Gomes Eanes de Zurara, make scant reference to them. However, in the 20 years between the Letter’s inventory and the commissioning of the Pastrana Tapestries, the tide seems to have turned completely: the bascinet completely disappears from King Afonso V’s army, and the sallet (along with the kettle-hat, or “barreta” [14]) becomes the predominant piece of protective headgear amongst our soldiers.

How do we explain the sallet’s late arrival to Portugal? If we take into account not only the import of arms and armour from Flanders – where the sallet was already par for the course in the early 15th century – but also our proximity to Castile, where sallets had been known and worn  since at least the 1420s, our sources seem rather out of place. On the one hand, Portugal wasn’t the only nation where the sallet played second fiddle to the bascinet for quite a while [15]. On the other hand, and according to Paulo Simões Agostinho, it is possible that Portuguese chroniclers used several terms – including bascinet – to refer to early sallets [16]. Thus, just as the original celata may have referred to a transitional type of bacinete, a number of those bascinets listed in the Letter of Discharge may correspond to transitional/early sallets (those that Paulo Agostinho mistakenly calls ‘Italian sallets’ [17]). This seems to me like a valid idea, though one that is practically impossible to prove. A massive update of Portuguese military equipment in preparation for the invasion, similar to what had happened in 1373 by order of King Fernando [18], is equally as valid. A large order, placed with Flemish and Italian armourers, would explain some of the stylistic uniformity that we find in these depictions.

Late or early, the simple fact of the matter is that we have no way of ascertaining the existence of sallets in Portugal before 1438 – the year the Letter of Quittance first records them -, and even less of a way of knowing exactly what they looked like. To my knowledge, there are no extant sallets in Portugal, nor any paintings, effigies or visual representations that precede the Tapestries. We have but the Afonsine ‘group portrait’ with which to analyse this particular piece of equipment.

Knight with sallet and bevor. Detail of the tapestry Siege of Asilah.

Ideally, any considerations about these sallets would be based on a statistical study of each piece portrayed in each of the tapestries, so that the existence of certain common patterns or characteristicscan be ascertained. To date, no such study has been carried out, unfortunately… which meant I was compelled to do it myself, with the invaluable help of my friend Martim Gervais – to whom I give my sincere thanks and, of course, due credit for his help.

For this analysis, we divided each tapestry into a grid using the same method used by Inês Araújo in her master’s thesis [19]. Every sallet per grid square was then duly profiled using a set of features – the existence of visors, the existence of bevors, skull shape, the various shapes of rivets, among others. The complete catalogue of elements for this analysis will be published shortly in this blog, after the files are properly ‘cleaned’ and the data is rechecked and confirmed. Nonetheless, we have sufficient data to allow us to present a reasonably clear image of what the archetypal Portuguese sallet of 1471 looked like.

Of the many prominent characteristics in this analysis, the most salient one (pun intended) would have to be the close-fitting, pointed skull, predominant in relation to simple hemispherical skulls. The sallet’s tail is almost invariably short, in every type of sallet. The Pastrana sallets have visors more often than not, although it is difficult to pinpoint which type of visor they were frequently equipped with – full visors or half-visors (jawbone visors). In either case, the brow reinforcement – either part of the visor or built onto the sallet – often has a scalloped edge, with two or three crescents between the visor rivet and the apex of the medial ridge.

Celadas 5.png
Visored sallets. Details of the tapestries Disembarkation at Asilah (left) and Assault on Asilah (centre and right).

There are also a great many visorless sallets, corresponding to the so-called ‘Italian’ or ‘Venetian’ sallets. They are simple in form, with both pointed and smooth skulls, and the same short tail as the other sallets in the Tapestries. Like their Italian counterparts, they are often covered with fabric.

Celada 3
Visorless sallets. Details of the tapestry Siege of Asilah.
Armoured knight, detail of the Crucifixion by Martín Bernat (ca. 1470-1480).

As far as ornamentation is concerned, it exists in several different ways. Starting with the rivets – always golden, arranged to secure the helmet’s inner lining -, we find various decorative shapes, from simple dome rivets to diamond or flower-shaped ones. Though most sallets are made out of bare metal, the use of fabric to cover the skull (never the visor) is significant – plain fabrics, but also brocades, velvets and silks with floral motifs, although it is impossible to pinpoint exactly which materials are being depicted.

I should also draw some attention to the many plumes, feathers and their respective plume-holders, as well as pomegranates and other forms of decorative finial or crest. Here too we find some parallels in Castilian iconography, as is the case of a knight in the Crucifixion of the artist Martín Bernat of Zaragoza (to the left). A peculiarity of Portuguese crests is the ‘eagle / dragon claw’ format present in several of the warriors – including King Afonso V. himself.

Franco-Burgundian sallet, (ca. 1460), Metropolitan Museum of Art, 29.150.13.

One last note concerning bevors. I previously stated that the typical ‘Iberian’ bevor of this period extends down to the lower tip of the sternum. This is not the shape we come across in Tapestries. The bevors of the Afonsine army tend to be shorter, with close-fitting chin plates and bottom lames with soft contours or very soft points. They never go beyond the middle of the sternum, nor do they ever rise to the level of the nose or eyes. They can also be composite, i.e. formed by several articulated lames. In this configuration, they have a lot in common with a few extant bevors from Flanders on display at the Real Armería (numbers E.245, C.9 and D.15). In addition to bevors, many warriors in the Tapestries protect their napes with an ‘additional defense for the neck, formed by a short tail made up of overlapping semicircular plates’ [20], which my friend Martim aptly dubbed ‘pangolin tails’.

Celada Argaiz.png
Castilian sallet (?) (ca. 1490), Musée de l’Armée.

This summary of global features allows us to insert the archetypal Portuguese sallet in the group of Anglo-Burgundian / Franco-Burgundian sallets. The skull’s overall shape and profile are undoubtedly the key elements of this identification, since they are one of the features par excellence of the Burgundian style – see the Franco-Burgundian sallet above, to the right [21], or the Coventry sallet. This conclusion is consistent not only with the Duchy of Burgundy’s influence in 15th century Portuguese culture but also with observable tendencies in neighbouring Castile. A case of striking similarity is that of the sallet and bevor (left) of a Spanish harness currently on display in the Musée de l’Armée in Paris, with its sharp pointy skull in many ways intermediate between Burgundian styles and the sharp peak of Aragonese and Castilian cabassets.

Regarding their use in the field, the use of one type of sallet or another seemed to have been dependant on practical reasons: visored sallets are worn by melee-oriented infantry, who require a greater degree of protection of the face; whilst open sallets ware mainly worn by crossbowmen, arquebusiers and gunners, protecting their heads whilst allowing them fairly unimpeded vision.

The Sallet in Reenactment

The sallet is one of the most elegant pieces of the entire medieval arsenal. As such, it requires an experienced pair of hands in its making, in order to maintain the proper fineness of silhouette – which can be found even in relatively low quality sallets. The fact that it is often paired with a bevor may cause incompatibilities between pieces from different armourers, even if either individual piece is appropriately made. For these reasons it is strongly recommended that sallet and bevor both be commissioned together from an experienced craftsman, instead of cheap, badly-shaped replicas from India.

[1] A series of three complementary videos, in fact: Helmets: The Sallet, parts 1 and 2, and the auxiliary video Anatomy of a Sallet. The links for the three videos are listed in their respective bibliographic entries.

[2] The word celata appears for the first time in the inventory of the Gonzaga family, one of the great Italian families of Lombardy, along with the term barbuta.

[3] The Palace’s Gothic arches were erected during the reconstruction of the building, which began in the 1340s (see Hurst, E. (2015). “Palazzo Ducale.” In Smarthistory, August 9, 2015, accessed August 26, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/palazzo-ducale/). As a fundamental structural element of the new edifice, they must’ve certainly been built shortly after the works began. As for the type of helmet presented, it can be compared to the Pistoia helmets, or the helmets depicted a few times in the Bolognese manuscript Speculum Humanae Salvationis, created between 1350-1400.

[4] ‘For example, we don’t see any indication that they’re worn with a maille aventail, or that they could even be worn with a maille aventail; they don’t have the hardware required to attach one.” LaSpina, I. [Knyght Errant] (2016, August 17). Helmets: The Sallet Pt. 1 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLyEBe6vw4w

[5] There is, to my knowledge, no record whatever of barbutas in Portugal. What we do have is a reference by Fernão Lopes to a type of bascinet worn ‘with an aventail of maille with its face’ [my own translation] (‘com camall de malha com cara posta’) whose protection extended to the chin and that, by analogy, was nicknamed barvuda (Agostinho (2014) , p. 63). However, this term concerns a piece of equipment of circa 1370, whereas the barbuta was only developed in Italy a few decades later (see Blair (1972), p.85). One should not be mistaken for the other.

[6] LaSpina, I. [Knyght Errant], op. cit.

[7] According to Oakeshott, ‘There are two references in the archives of Innsbruck, one dated 1425, the other 1426; the first refers to drei tscheleren and the second to drei tscheleden. Tschelede is clearly a corruption of celata, so it probably applies to the exported products of Milan,’ in Oakeshott (2012), p. 111.

[8] LaSpina, I. [Knyght Errant], op. cit.

[9] In the aformentioned Speculum Humanae Salvationis, visored proto-sallets can be seen in folio 32v.

[10] See Blair (1972), op. cit., p. 106.

[11] ‘The German sallet developed an extremely long tail, sometimes made flexible by the interposition of three or four narrow lames riveted at the sides like the articulations in a lobster between the skull and the end of the tail,’ in Oakeshott (2012), op. cit., p. 291.

[12] ‘With these war-hats was worn the long bevor called a barbote. This was often built up with plates supported on spring-catches reaching to as far as the eyes, to act as a visor, and at the same time extending in a point well down over the chest to afford as much protection as possible to the breast, which would be defended only by a brigandine,’ in Mann, op. cit., Mann. There are a few examples of this type of “Iberian” bevor in Portugal, in Rainer Daehnhardt’s private collection, for example, or a bevor at Lisbon’s Military Museum (MML, nº 21/64), in every way similar to contemporary Castilian bevors (that may be seen in the Real Armería in Madrid).

[13] According to the Letter’s synoptic table in Monteiro (2001), p. 45, compared to 1174 bascinets “from the warehouse (?) and from Flanders” [my translation] (“de armazém e da Flandres”) received and a total of 1,317 bascinets spent, the Arsenal recorded only  31 sallets received and 51 spent over the entire ten-year period.

[14] See Agostinho (2014), op. cit. pp. 75-76.

[15] “The bascinet and kettle-hat remained the most popular form of helmet in Germany until c. 1450”, in Blair (1972), op. cit., p. 102. This timeline coincides with that of the Letter of Discharge (1438-1448).

[16] Referring in this case to kettle hats, Agostinho states that either 15th century chronicles ignore them, “or the helmets are camouflaged by other names (with the chroniclers preferring to continue using more traditional names such as bascinet and sallet) [my translation] (“ou os capacetes surgem camuflados por outros nomes (preferindo os cronistas continuar a usar nomes mais tradicionais, como bacinete e celada)”, (2014, p.76)). The same reasoning can be extrapolated and applied to sallets and bascinets – which Claude Blair does when talking about Italian “proto-sallets”: “It is not unlikely that this is the form of helmet to which the Italian word celata was first applied, for it certainly seems to be the precursor of the helmet that was so called later in the 15th century” in Blair (1972), op. cit., p. 70.

[17] Agostinho quotes: “According to G. Stone (STONE, 1999: 536), the sallet was a very popular piece of headgear in various regions of Europe in the 15th century, and there were two very different models of sallet. the Italian sallet was close-fitting and had no hinged visor. Some models left the face of the combatant exposed, but the most common model had a T-shaped front opening that allowed for vision and breathing without leaving its wearer too unprotected.” [my translation] (‘A celada, segundo G. Stone (STONE, 1999, p. 536), era uma protecção de cabeça muito utilizada, no século XV, em várias regiões da Europa, existindo mesmo dois modelos de celadas bastante diferentes entre si. O primeiro era a celada italiana, peça bastante cingida à cabeça e ao pescoço e sem viseira móvel. Alguns modelos deixavam descoberto o rosto do combatente, mas o modelo mais comum tinha uma abertura frontal em forma de T, que permitia a visão e a respiração sem desproteger em demasia o seu utilizador,’ in Agostinho (2014), pp. 74-75). This description is suitable for the Italian barbuta, not the sallet, even when visorless and featuring a sharp widow’s peak. Although both types of helmet may be considered to be related, they should not be mistaken. It is also worth pointing out the simple error in reducing the existence of several types of regional characteristics to two single groups (as well as ignoring the fact that Italian sallets could also be worn with visors). 

[18] “According to Fernão Lopes, on the occasion of the reforms in the military equipment he undertook in 1373, shortly after signing the Treaty of Santarém, D. Fernando ordered that cervellieres be replaced by “bascinets with camail” (…)” [my translation (“Segundo relata Fernão Lopes, por ocasião das reformas no equipamento militar que empreendeu em 1373, logo após a assinatura do tratado de Santarém, D. Fernando mandou que as capelinas fossem substituídas por “barvuda com camalhom” (…)”), in Monteiro (1998), op. cit., p. 536. In this instance, it is possible that this update, if it actually happened, could have been stimulated by the instability of D. Pedro’s regency that culminated in the battle of Alfarrobeira.

[19] See Araújo (2012), op. cit., p. 12.

[20] La Rocca (2014), op. cit., p. 37.

[21] “(…) the pointed bowl is characteristic of sallets illustrated in French and Burgundian manuscripts and tapestries and of several surviving examples preserved in English churches”, in Pyhrr (2000), p. 9.


Agostinho, P. (2012). Vestidos para matar: o armamento de guerra na cronística portuguesa de quatrocentos. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra

Araújo, I. (2012). As Tapeçarias de Pastrana – Uma Iconografia da Guerra. Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa [Master’s Thesis]. Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa

Barroca, M. J. and Monteiro, J. G. (Coords.) (2000). Pera Guerrejar – Armamento Medieval no Espaço Português. Palmela: Câmara Municipal de Palmela

Blair, C. (1972). European Armour: circa 1066 to 1700. Londron: B. T. Batsford Ltd.

Calvert, A. (1907). Spanish Arms and Armour. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head. Disponível em-linha em https://www.gutenberg.org/files/47878/47878-h/47878-h.htm

Grancsay, S. (1951). “A Late Medieval Helmet (Sallet)”. In The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, Vol. 13/14 pp. 20–29. Baltimore: The Walters Art Museum

Demmim, A. (1893). Die Kriegswaffen in ihren geschichtlichen Entwickelungen von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Leipzig : P. Friesehahn

Hurst, E. (2015). “Palazzo Ducale”. In Smarthistory, August 9, 2015, accessed August 26, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/palazzo-ducale/.

La Rocca, D. (2011). “Afonso ‘the African’ and his Army: The Pastrana Tapestries as a Visual Encyclopedia for the Study of Arms and Armour”. In Ibarra, M. A. de B. (2011). The Invention of Glory: Afonso V and the Pastrana Tapestries, pp. 29-41

Mann, J. (1933). “Notes on the armour worn in Spain from the tenth to the fifteenth century” in Archaeologia, V. 83,  pp. 285-305. London: Society of Antiquaries of London

Monteiro, J. G. (2001). Armeiros e Armazéns nos Finais da Idade Média. Viseu: Palimage Editores

Monteiro, J. G. (1998). A Guerra em Portugal nos finais da Idade Média. Lisboa: Editorial Notícias

Oakeshott, E. (2012). European Weapons and Armour: From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press

Pyhrr, S. (2000). European Helmets, 1450 – 1650. Treasures from the Reserve Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Valencia de Don Juan, C. (1898). Catálogo Histórico-descriptivo de la Real Armeria de Madrid. Madrid: Fototipias de Hauser y Menet


(ca. 1475). Siege of Asilah [wool and silk]. Tapestry. Pastrana: Parish Tapestry Museum. Retrieved from http://tapestries.flandesenhispania.org/index.php/Siege_of_Asilah_(Cerco_de_Arcila)

(ca. 1475). Disembarkation in Asilah [wool and silk]. Tapestry. Pastrana: Parish Tapestry Museum. Retrieved from http://tapestries.flandesenhispania.org/index.php/Disembarkation_in_Asilah_(Desembarco_en_Arcila)

(ca. 1475). The Taking of Tangier [wool and silk]. Tapestry. Pastrana: Parish Tapestry Museum. Retrieved from http://tapestries.flandesenhispania.org/index.php/The_taking_of_Tangier_(Toma_de_T%C3%A1nger)

(ca. 1475). Assault on Asilah [wool and silk]. Tapestry. Pastrana: Parish Tapestry Museum. Retrieved from http://tapestries.flandesenhispania.org/index.php/Assault_on_Asilah_(Asalto_de_Arcila)

Guiron le Courtois (ca. 1420-1440). Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, BNF Français 356. Retrieved from http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8514422s/f1.planchecontact.r=.langEN

Speculum Humanae Salvationis (ca. 1350-1400). Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, BNF Français 593.

Bernat, M. (ca. 1470-1480). Crucifixion [oil on wood]. San Diego: San Diego Museum of Art


LaSpina, I. [Knyght Errant] (2016, August 17). Helmets: The Sallet Pt. 1 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLyEBe6vw4w

LaSpina, I. [Knyght Errant] (2016, August 21). Helmets: The Sallet Pt. 2 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XssorlVXsv4

LaSpina, I. [Knyght Errant] (2016, December 8). Anatomy of a Sallet [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qo517b3kMH0&feature=share


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